Argentine-born Pope Francis wrote the newly released Evangelii Gadium (“The Joy of the Gospel”) in his native Spanish, which may help to answer some thorny questions being raised about the English translation of the pontiff’s first solo official document (the recent encyclical, Lumen Fidei, or “The Light of Faith,” was largely the work of Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI).
Evangelii Gaudium (an English PDF can be downloaded here; a Spanish one here) is anApostolic Exhortation, which is Vatican-speak for an authoritative (but, like an encyclical, NOT infallible) papal letter.
Shortly after the document was released, some political and economic conservatives took exception to the pope’s comments on how economic systems and politicians fail the poor and vulnerable. Some even characterized his words as an all-out attack on capitalism. Of course, on the other end of the political/economic spectrum, there were those thrilled to apparently have a pope on their side.
Subsequently, there began a trickle of questions about the translation of one of the most contentious passages (click here and here and here for initial skepticism, and here for skepticism about the skepticism, which itself was met with some skepticism and has been since updated with a correction).
Most papal documents are released in Latin, which has been the lingua franca of the multilingual Roman Catholic Church for centuries. But it’s not easy to find someone fluent enough in Latin to translate long, complicated documents, laden with religious references and idioms. So, journalists have relied on the Vatican’s own English version.
But in the case of Evangelii Gaudium, trusting that translation may be problematic. That becomes especially evident upon even a cursory examination of blogger Joe Garcia’s first pass at a re-translation. Click here for his efforts, which highlight the changes he makes from the English document and some of the reasons why.
He admits he’s not a publicly acknowledged expert, writing, “The vast majority of my readers have no idea who I am. ‘This could be some lunatic on Babelfish!’ or ‘This idiot went to Chipotle twice in one week and now thinks he’s Cervantes’ are all thoughts you could, quite legitimately, have. You might read of someone who takes exception to my interpretation, maybe even read a vast horde of them. I can swear or affirm that I am a native Spanish speaker with equivalent native fluency in English and who has to, for professional reasons, translate reports, memoranda, etc., on a daily basis.
“And you are not even remotely required to believe a bloody syllable of it. Which is why I am asking you to take, my, uh, word for it.”
Garcia goes into detail about the issues he has with the translation, writing, “Some of the mistranslations… are perplexingly silly, capricous changes in wording but which don’t really affect much. Some, on the other hand, are subtle and while not changing the strict definition of the passage, give it a different flavor. Then, of course, we have the outrageous stuff… missing phrases, clauses and sentences… outright, wholesale changes in wording that have the unhappy consequences we have seen.”
In addition to economic passages, Garcia has also re-translated some of the expansive document’s other sections, including a paragraph that may not sit well with those in the Church who prefer to let others–governments, for example–get their hands dirty in caring for those in need (bottom of page 163 of the Spanish PDF):
207: Any community within the Church, to the degree it attempts to go its own tranquil way without without creatively making sure [the verb "ocupar” in Spanish mean more "take care of it” or "busying oneself” than "occupy”] of cooperating efficiently [or "e[or "effectively”]ing the poor to live with dignity and including all, also runs the risk of [s[self-]i[s[self-], however much it may talk about social issues or criticize governments. It will easily drift into a spiritually mundane [r[realm]a[r[realm] by religious practices, fruitless meetings and empty speeches.”
This is not Garcia’s first encounter with translating a papal document or even Pope Francis.
Garcia recast an Apostolic Exhortation of Pope Benedict XVI from Latin into English in 2007, referring to the Vatican’s English version as “unspeakably bad.” He says he’s also translated “many homilies and essays by then-Cardinal Bergoglio when he was just a no-name cardinal in some Latin American backwater” for the benefit of English-speaking Catholics who don’t know Spanish.